1881 – The Alkali Act

The Alkali Act was passed in Great Britain to regulate pollution connected with the production of superphosphates. The Alkali Act regime was overhauled and expanded in the Alkali & c. Works Regulation Act 1881, which, significantly, placed responsibility for the system into the hands of the local Government Board. This made the context in which this facet…

1868 – Edward Frankland in England recommended intermittent filtration of waste water through sand filters

Edward Frankland set up filtration experiments in the laboratory, using glass cylinders six feet high and about ten inches in diameter, open at the top and bottom and placed over; earthenware troughs. A glass tube was inserted in the middle for aeration purposes. Five different filter media were used: coarse gravel, sand, soil, loamy marl…

1866 – The great Sanitary Act

Finally, it was recognized that the 1848 Act had failed to produce the desired results: this was due mainly to that Act being permissive rather than compulsory. The 1866 Act compelled local authorities to improve local conditions and remove nuisances (health hazards). They became responsible also for the provision of sewers, water and street cleaning.…

1848 – The Public Health Act

The 1848 Public Health Act was the first step on the road to improved public health.  One of the individuals who played an important role in its creation was Edwin Chadwick, a social reformer. He considered that the most important steps to improve the health of the public were: • improved drainage and provision of sewers • the…