1899 - 1800United States of America

The first UK incinerators for waste disposal were built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. in 1874 to a design patented by Albert Fryer. They were originally known as destructors.

Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as “thermal treatment”. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.

Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. While incineration and gasification technologies are similar in principle, the energy product from incineration is high-temperature heat whereas combustible gas is often the main energy product from gasification. Incineration and gasification may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery.



  • Herbert, Lewis (2007). “Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England”. Chartered Institution of Wastes Management.
  • Knox, Andrew (February 2005). “An Overview of Incineration and EFW Technology as Applied to the Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)”. University of Western Ontario.

Photo: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Britannica_Destructors_3.jpg