1899 - 1800United Kingdom

In 1864 Edmund Alexander Parkes published the first edition of the Manual of Practical Hygiene; it reached during his lifetime a fourth edition, an eighth edition in 1891, and was translated into many languages. It used a traditional airs, waters and places structure, going back to Hippocrates, and this persisted for a generation. In 1896 it was revised by James Lane Notter and R. H. Firth, in a version that was a standard, through six editions, for military hygiene until 1905.

More about in the book: https://archive.org/stream/amanualpractica01parkgoog#page/n8/mode/2up



  • Parkes, Edmund Alexander”. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  • Michael Worboys, Spreading Germs: diseases, theories, and medical practice in Britain, 1865–1900 (2000), p. 111.
  • Philip D. Curtin, Death by Migration: Europe’s encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century (1989), p. 105.

Photo: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Edmund_Alexander_Parkes.jpg