1899 - 1800Germany

Pettenkofer was a major figure in the development of the academic stdy of public hygiene and sanitary reform in the nineteenth centur. In 1865, Pettenkofer was made ordinary professor of hygiene and elected university rector at Munich. During an audience with the young King Ludwig II, Pettenkofer promoted hygiene so effectively that chairs were created at the universities of Würzburg and Erlangen, and the subject was made compulsory in state medical examinations. The new discipline had taken firm root. In 1865,  with Voit and two associates, Pettenkofer founded and for eighteen years coedited the Zeitschrift für Biologie, which published many of his reports. The collaborative studies on nutrition continued until Pettenkofer moved into his own institute. His special interest in the hygienic importance of air focused on its relationship to clothing and particularly to soil.



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