1881 – The Alkali Act

The Alkali Act was passed in Great Britain to regulate pollution connected with the production of superphosphates. The Alkali Act regime was overhauled and expanded in the Alkali & c. Works Regulation Act 1881, which, significantly, placed responsibility for the system into the hands of the local Government Board. This made the context in which this facet…

1881 – Evidence of relationship between milk and typhoid fever, scarlet fever and diphtheria reported

In 1881 at the International Medical Congress held in London, Hart, who was then President of the British Medical Association, gave an influential paper that sketched a decade’s worth of epidemiological research that linked typhoid fever, scarlet fever, and diphtheria to milk. He had a professional interest in giving the talk because he sought to…

1880 – Carlos Finlay described the relationship of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to yellow fever transmission

In the 19th century, Cuba and other tropical areas were plagued with several diseases that typically struck in large outbreaks. One of the worst tropical diseases was yellow fever. If a canal was to be built between the two oceans, somebody had to figure out how to stop yellow fever from spreading, and that meant first understanding…

1877 – Koch’s Postulates

Known for his work on tuberculosis, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize.
Established Koch’s Postulates that provide the basis for establishing if an organism is the cause of a disease
Koch pioneered the use of microbiologic techniques still used today –agar growth media, Petri dishes; bacterial purification and staining techniques.

1874 – Furnace incinerator for refuse at Nottingham, England

The first UK incinerators for waste disposal were built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. in 1874 to a design patented by Albert Fryer. They were originally known as destructors. Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as “thermal treatment”. Incineration of waste materials converts…

1873 – Dr. William Budd wrote: “Typhoid Fever, its Nature, Mode of spreading, and Prevention.”

Budd did not put his views before the profession until 1857-60 when he published a series of papers in The Lancet, afterwards embodied in his work Typhoid Fever in 1873. He had long since taught them in the Bristol Medical School. During the depressing period of opposition that he encountered, he gained support from fellow country doctors; otherwise…