1868 – Edward Frankland in England recommended intermittent filtration of waste water through sand filters

Edward Frankland set up filtration experiments in the laboratory, using glass cylinders six feet high and about ten inches in diameter, open at the top and bottom and placed over; earthenware troughs. A glass tube was inserted in the middle for aeration purposes. Five different filter media were used: coarse gravel, sand, soil, loamy marl…

1866 – The great Sanitary Act

Finally, it was recognized that the 1848 Act had failed to produce the desired results: this was due mainly to that Act being permissive rather than compulsory. The 1866 Act compelled local authorities to improve local conditions and remove nuisances (health hazards). They became responsible also for the provision of sewers, water and street cleaning.…

1865 – Max Von Pettenkofer – professor of the first Institute of Hygiene, at the University of Munich

Pettenkofer was a major figure in the development of the academic stdy of public hygiene and sanitary reform in the nineteenth centur. In 1865, Pettenkofer was made ordinary professor of hygiene and elected university rector at Munich. During an audience with the young King Ludwig II, Pettenkofer promoted hygiene so effectively that chairs were created…

1860 – Ann Marie Jarvis

She noted the exceptionally high infant mortality rate in Taylor County, WV; seven of her eleven children died of communicable disease. She organized Mothers Day Work Clubs through churches in five local towns to provide medicine for the indigent, inspection of milk for wholesomeness, and care for children of tubercular mothers. She asked area physicians…

1859 – Florence Nightengale

“The Apostle of Cleanliness”
Studied death rate from communicable diseases (principally cholera and typhus) among wounded British soldiers during the Crimean War (1855). Statistically proved that improvements in sanitation at hospitals led to a decrease in the death rate. Human health is first linked to environmentalconditions

1854 – Dr. John Snow

Studied the geographic distribution of cholera deaths in London during the 1854 epidemic. Concluded that people who drank water from the Soho District Broad Street pump were more likely to get cholera. Removed the pump handle and stopped the epidemic. Contamination came from a “Dolphin” located downstream of a sewer outfall

1850 – Lemuel Shattuck

Lemuel Shattuck was born in 1793 in Ashby, Massachusetts. His first career was as a teacher, and he moved westward with the wave of migration in 1817. Afflicted with poor health, he returned to the family home in Concord in 1822, where he became active in civic affairs. He had the strong conviction that collection…